All transcripts of all genes have been analyzed regarding the location(s) of corresponding protein based on prediction methods for signal peptides and transmembrane regions.
Genes with at least one transcript predicted to encode a secreted protein, according to prediction methods or to UniProt location data, have been further annotated and classified with the aim to determine if the corresponding protein(s) are secreted or actually retained in intracellular locations or membrane-attached.
Remaining genes, with no transcript predicted to encode a secreted protein, will be assigned the prediction-based location(s).
The annotated location overrules the predicted location, so that a gene encoding a predicted secreted protein that has been annotated as intracellular will have intracellular as the final location.
The RNA specificity category is based on mRNA expression levels in the consensus dataset which is calculated from the RNA expression levels in samples from HPA and GTEX. The categories include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, low tissue specificity and not detected.
Evidence score for genes based on UniProt protein existence (UniProt evidence); a Human Protein Atlas antibody- or RNA based score (HPA evidence); and evidence based on PeptideAtlas (MS evidence). The avaliable scores are evidence at protein level, evidence at transcript level, no evidence, or not avaliable.
A summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed normal tissues. The summary is based on knowledge-based annotation.
"Estimation of protein expression could not be performed. View primary data." is shown for genes analyzed with a knowledge-based approach where available RNA-seq and gene/protein characterization data has been evaluated as not sufficient in combination with immunohistochemistry data to yield a reliable estimation of the protein expression profile.
Standardized explanatory sentences with additional information required for full understanding of the protein expression profile, based on knowledge-based and secretome-based annotation.
Antibody staining mainly not consistent with RNA expression data. Pending external verification.
A reliability score is manually set for all genes and indicates the level of reliability of the analyzed protein expression pattern based on available RNA-seq data, protein/gene characterization data and immunohistochemical data from one or several antibodies with non-overlapping epitopes. The reliability score is based on the 44 normal tissues analyzed, and if there is available data from more than one antibody, the staining patterns of all antibodies are taken into consideration during evaluation.
The reliability score is divided into Enhanced, Supported, Approved, or Uncertain, and is displayed on both Tissue Atlas and Pathology Atlas.
Below is an overview of RNA and protein expression data generated in the Human Protein Atlas project. Analyzed tissues are divided into color-coded groups according to which functional features they have in common. For each group, a list of included tissues is accessed by clicking on group name, group symbol, RNA bar, or protein bar. Subsequent selection of a particular tissue in this list links to the image data page.
Images of selected tissues give a visual summary of the protein expression profile furthest to the right.
The gray human body provides links to a histology dictionary when clicking on any part of the figure.
RNA expression (TPM)i
RNA expression summary shows the consensus data based on normalized expression (nTPM) values from two different sources: internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) RNA-seq data and RNA-seq data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar.
Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. Protein expression scores are based on a best estimate of the "true" protein expression from a knowledge-based annotation, described more in detail under Assays & annotation. For genes where more than one antibody has been used, a collective score is set displaying the estimated true protein expression.
Protein expression data is shown for each of the 44 tissues. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. Mouse-over function shows protein score for analyzed cell types in a selected tissue. To access image data click on tissue name or bar. Annotation of protein expression is described in detail in Assays & annotation.
For genes with available protein data for which a knowledge-based annotation gave inconclusive results, no protein expression data is displayed in the protein expression data overview. However, all immunohistochemical images are still available and the annotation data can be found under Primary data.
RNA EXPRESSION OVERVIEWi
RNA expression overview shows RNA-data from two different sources: Internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) RNA-seq data and RNA-seq data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, as well as the consensus dataset which is based on a combination of both sources. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar.
The HPA RNA-seq tissue data is reported as nTPM (normalized protein-coding transcripts per million), corresponding to mean values of the different individual samples from each tissue. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar.
The RNA-seq tissue data generated by the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project is reported as nTPM (normalized protein-coding transcripts per million), corresponding to mean values of the different individual samples from each tissue. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar.
The tissue data for RNA expression obtained through Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) generated by the FANTOM5 project are reported as Scaled Tags Per Million. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar.
Gene information from Ensembl and Entrez, as well as links to available gene identifiers are displayed here. Information was retrieved from Ensembl if not indicated otherwise.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (HGNC Symbol)
Entrez gene summary
This gene encodes a multifunctional Ser/Thr protein kinase that is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase, and transcription factors, such as JUN. It also plays a role in the WNT and PI3K signaling pathways, as well as regulates the production of beta-amyloid peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
The protein browser displays the antigen location on the target protein(s) and the features of the target protein. The tabs at the top of the protein view section can be used to switch between the different splice variants to which an antigen has been mapped.
At the top of the view, the position of the antigen (identified by the corresponding HPA identifier) is shown as a green bar. A yellow triangle on the bar indicates a <100% sequence identity to the protein target.
Below the antigens, the maximum percent sequence identity of the protein to all other proteins from other human genes is displayed, using a sliding window of 10 aa residues (HsID 10) or 50 aa residues (HsID 50). The region with the lowest possible identity is always selected for antigen design, with a maximum identity of 60% allowed for designing a single-target antigen (read more).
The curve in blue displays the predicted antigenicity i.e. the tendency for different regions of the protein to generate an immune response, with peak regions being predicted to be more antigenic.The curve shows average values based on a sliding window approach using an in-house propensity scale. (read more).
If a signal peptide is predicted by a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius (turquoise) and/or transmembrane regions (orange) are predicted by MDM, these are displayed.
Low complexity regions are shown in yellow and InterPro regions in green. Common (purple) and unique (grey) regions between different splice variants of the gene are also displayed (read more), and at the bottom of the protein view is the protein scale.
The protein information section displays alternative protein-coding transcripts (splice variants) encoded by this gene according to the Ensembl database.
The ENSP identifier links to the Ensembl website protein summary, while the ENST identifier links to the Ensembl website transcript summary for the selected splice variant. The data in the UniProt column can be expanded to show links to all matching UniProt identifiers for this protein.
The protein classes assigned to this protein are shown if expanding the data in the protein class column. Parent protein classes are in bold font and subclasses are listed under the parent class.
The Gene Ontology terms assigned to this protein are listed if expanding the Gene ontology column. The length of the protein (amino acid residues according to Ensembl), molecular mass (kDalton), predicted signal peptide (according to a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius) and the number of predicted transmembrane region(s) (according to MDM) are also reported.
Enzymes ENZYME proteins Transferases Kinases CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinases MEMSAT-SVM predicted membrane proteins SPOCTOPUS predicted membrane proteins Predicted intracellular proteins Cancer-related genes Candidate cancer biomarkers Protein evidence (Kim et al 2014) Protein evidence (Ezkurdia et al 2014)
GO:0000166 [nucleotide binding] GO:0003073 [regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure] GO:0003214 [cardiac left ventricle morphogenesis] GO:0004672 [protein kinase activity] GO:0004674 [protein serine/threonine kinase activity] GO:0005515 [protein binding] GO:0005524 [ATP binding] GO:0005739 [mitochondrion] GO:0005829 [cytosol] GO:0005975 [carbohydrate metabolic process] GO:0005977 [glycogen metabolic process] GO:0006468 [protein phosphorylation] GO:0007212 [dopamine receptor signaling pathway] GO:0007399 [nervous system development] GO:0008286 [insulin receptor signaling pathway] GO:0009968 [negative regulation of signal transduction] GO:0010905 [negative regulation of UDP-glucose catabolic process] GO:0016055 [Wnt signaling pathway] GO:0016301 [kinase activity] GO:0016310 [phosphorylation] GO:0016740 [transferase activity] GO:0030819 [positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process] GO:0030877 [beta-catenin destruction complex] GO:0032007 [negative regulation of TOR signaling] GO:0032869 [cellular response to insulin stimulus] GO:0034236 [protein kinase A catalytic subunit binding] GO:0036016 [cellular response to interleukin-3] GO:0036498 [IRE1-mediated unfolded protein response] GO:0043161 [proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process] GO:0045719 [negative regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process] GO:0045732 [positive regulation of protein catabolic process] GO:0045823 [positive regulation of heart contraction] GO:0046325 [negative regulation of glucose import] GO:0046627 [negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway] GO:0050321 [tau-protein kinase activity] GO:0061052 [negative regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development] GO:0071879 [positive regulation of adrenergic receptor signaling pathway] GO:0090090 [negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway] GO:0097192 [extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand] GO:0098794 [postsynapse] GO:0099565 [chemical synaptic transmission, postsynaptic] GO:1901030 [positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:1903146 [regulation of mitophagy] GO:1903955 [positive regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion] GO:1904227 [negative regulation of glycogen synthase activity, transferring glucose-1-phosphate] GO:2000077 [negative regulation of type B pancreatic cell development] GO:2000466 [negative regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity] GO:2000467 [positive regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity]